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    徐悲鴻的馬 徐悲鴻奔馬圖 徐悲鴻八駿圖

     

    劉曦林

    ────────────────────
    “我愛畫動物,皆對實物下過極長時間的功,
    即以馬論(馬種以蒙古馬好),速寫稿不下千幅。
    并學過馬的解剖,熟悉馬之骨架,肌肉組織,
    夫然后詳審其動態及神情,乃能有得。”
                ——徐悲鴻

    ────────────────────

       在中國,畫家徐悲鴻的名字,幾乎家逾戶曉,之所以如此為人熟悉,是與他善于畫馬有關。徐悲鴻筆下的馬,超凡脫俗,豪邁奔放,在寫實的形體中充滿著浪漫的遐想和激情。

       徐悲鴻喜歡畫馬,在歐洲留學的時候,就認真地畫過馬的素描,三、四十年代又畫了許多速寫,對于馬的動態、結構、習性均了如指掌。同時,他解決了筆墨和馬的塊面結構如何諧和一致的課題,從而可以得心應手地塑造出馬的形象,以表現表現他的審美理想。

       他不象古人那樣熱衷于畫鞍馬,他喜歡畫野馬,喜歡野馬的自由和那豪放不羈的氣質,更便于抒瀉自己的情懷。所以,1940年他在克什米爾的時候,見到當地的駿馬格外興奮,也就在這一年他創作了精品之作——《群馬》。

       《群馬》與其他作品不同的是,主要描繪了兩匹背向觀眾的馬,后面又配一匹側向的馬,為了使畫面有變化,又在右邊畫了一匹低首覓食的馬。畫家在此畫中,沒有畫馬的奔騰之姿,那幾匹背向的馬仿佛聽到了什么,正豎耳警覺地凝視著遠方,表面是那樣平靜,但卻蘊含著內在的動力。他以粗重有力的線條表現出馬匹堅硬的骨骼和挺勁的馬腿,以生動的的墨色表現出風中拂動的馬鬃和馬尾,更強化了那靜中之動的魅力。他純用墨筆畫馬,畫
    面下部以濕筆花青點染草地,漸遠漸淡,也象馬的神態那樣把觀眾的視線和思緒引向遠方。

       徐悲鴻善于畫馬,對馬的結構和習性都非常熟悉,尤其表現在對細節的描繪上。他所畫的馬,鼻孔都特別大,他認為鼻孔大的馬,肺活量也會相對較大,跑起來才會有力而且耐久;馬腿的比例,相對稍長,徐悲鴻認為腿和蹄是馬奔跑的工具,長腿跑起來較快。至于蹄,看來好似一兩筆簡單帶過,但卻是花費了長時間研究描摹的結果。他曾說過,馬蹄比女人的高跟鞋還難畫。那是因為馬蹄是力量與重心的集結所在,是動靜靈活的關鍵;拂動的馬鬃和馬尾,是表現馬剛柔相濟的魅力所在。徐悲鴻認為毛筆太軟,畫不出鬃尾的質感和勁力,所以他常用硬筆掃出鬃尾,使之釬毫畢露,而呈現出動力的美感。

       徐悲鴻所畫的奔馬,桀驁不凡,自由奔放,觀之令人驚心動魄,在寫實之中充滿了浪漫主義的風格。畫家不僅把駿馬作為自己繪畫風格的象征,更是一種精神的追求,是對自由和激情的贊美和謳歌。

     

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